“A powerful programming language is more than just a means for instructing a computer to perform tasks. The language also serves as a framework within which we organize our ideas about processes.” – Hal Abelson
As the fundamental base behind effective software development, programming languages are the primary mantra for software developers. As technology advances and shows its new and true colors every other day, programming languages have their own set of popularity quotients that shine bright.
As 2021 approaches, there is a curiosity that arises in the mind of developers – ‘what are the top programming languages that will rule the coming year?’. There are a set of most popular programming languages that will showcase its own proficiency in the world of development. This chunk of the latest programming languages have been widely used in 2020 and shall be a developer’s delight in the next year too.
Top Programming Languages 2021
Most Popular Programming Languages For 2021
Python is one of the most popular programming languages today, with clear and concise syntax. As a high-level and interpreted language, it has been winning developer trust with its salient features. It facilitates you to work swiftly with effective system integration.
It has a wide variety of modules and libraries, including third party ones, that help in creating machine learning tools to handle complicated tasks. The main objective of the Python Software Foundation is to encourage and develop the language, supporting the progress of a wide community of Python loyalists.
Created in 1991, it has been a flexible coding style that can be developed on one and executed on a second system. It has been popular owing to its simple yet robust nature. Its scalability allows it to easily integrate with other languages making it easy to handle with complicated apps. It is considered ideal for creating complex programs, data science, and machine learning programs, web development.
Good Read: Top 10 Python Web Development Frameworks
- Easy to learn and utilize
- Readable, open-source, well-structured code
- Good community support with extensive library support
- Easy to build prototypes
- Supports different OS like Windows, iOS, Linux
- Weak threading and database access layer
- A bit dimmer being an interpreted language
Organizations Leveraging Python:
Facebook, Google, Spotify, Instagram, Amazon, Quora, Dropbox, IBM
Go Programming Language:
Developed by Google in 2009, Go has been a trending language for the coming year. Google’s Go is an open-source, statically typed language that is quick and lighter in execution. It has the competence to showcase huge data sets in an easily understandable manner and execute multiple tasks together, i.e. its concurrent nature is its USP.
Being a system-level programming language, it has a definitely built vocabulary. It mixes effortlessly the positives of object-oriented programming and functional programming. As one of the largest growing languages on GitHub, it has a fast acceptance level and is popular amongst the cloud-based computing services.
It is popular in the serverless computing environment. In syntax, it is like C but many other features such as garbage collection, type safety, dynamic typing, etc. It offers great search results enhanced to save up to 40% of data. It gets you answers instantly and consistently, on lesser speed and space both.
- Easy to build simple, dependable, and efficient
- Static typing, multiprocessing, and high runtime efficacy
- Concurrent, executes multiple tasks together
- Strong library support, no need to depend on third-party libraries
- A minimalist language, concise and easy to read
- Imperfect error handling
- No manual memory management
Organizations Leveraging Go:
Google, Dropbox, Docker, IBM, Twitch, Uber, Dailymotion, SoundCloud, BBC
Scala is a high-level language that was introduced in 2004, as a combination of functional programming and object-oriented programming. It had entered the world of languages to suffice the absent features in Java and has managed to create popularity, though Java still rules.
It is a static type language in which the variables are defined and declared, because of which there are lesser problems in performance during runtime. As it is created on JVM, it can be compiled with Java Byte Code and can have easy integration with Java and other relevant JDK.
- Great IDE support with user-friendly compilations
- Faster and effective with ‘Lazy Evaluation’ to evaluate only when needed
- Scalable and ideal for data analytics and Big Data analytics
- Very functional, easy to understand
- Future and Promises features to process data in parallel
- Has a restricted developer community
- Little tough to understand
Organizations Leveraging Scala:
Netflix, Twitter, LinkedIn, Airbnb, Tumblr, New York Times, Foursquare
Kotlin is an open-source language for contemporary, multiplatform applications. Declared as a preferred language for Android development somewhere in 2019, Kotlin has been a statically typed language with high-class Android Support Studio. Initially created by JetBrains, it supports functional and object-oriented programming concepts.
It has been a popularly growing language since its entry in 2011. There are certain features Kotlin boasts of, that give it an edge over its peers – null safety, operator overloading, data classes, etc. Kotlin comes with an advanced compiler that can easily and effectively operate at runtime and during compilation.
As a license-free language, it has good community support. Its salient feature of lazy loading reduces the load time of applications, thereby, enhancing user experience. It has been holding high for most types of Android app development applications along with web/desktop/server-side development.
- Demands lesser coding efforts
- Free of cost and offers interoperability
- Has a smaller learning curve
- Lean syntax, simple to write and comprehend
- Speed of compilation is changeable
- Limited skilled resources available
Organizations Leveraging Kotlin:
Pinterest, Amazon, Netflix, Square, Capital One, Google, Coursera, Uber, Trello, Post Mates
Rust is a popular programming language that has facilitated its developers with the ease of building trustworthy and efficient software since its inception in 2010, by Mozilla. While being syntactically like C++, it ensures a safe and concurrent programming style. It offers enhanced memory safety not allowing null/dangling pointers in secure coding methods.
Being performance-oriented, Rust has been the choice for many owing to its safety prone software elements. It assures memory safety barring garbage collection, meaning the speed of execution does not slow down. It offers the choice of either getting data stored on the stack or heap, while the memory component is not required and can be cleaned. This facilitates the effective leverage of memory.
The key USP to Rust is its error management strategy. Whenever an error that cannot be corrected occurs during compilation, a macro named ‘panic!’ gets active, closes the program offering an appropriate message and hence no harm is done. Rust is the right blend of key features of high-level and low-level languages, making it ideal for novices and experts, alike.
- Swift and memory-efficient
- Controls performance-critical services
- Easily integrable with other third-party systems
- Assures memory-safety and thread-safety
- Helps reduce multiple classes of bugs at compile-time
- Complex to learn
- Longer time for compilation
Organizations Leveraging Rust:
Dropbox, Mozilla, Post Mates, Braintree, Microsoft, Oracle, Fastly, Atlassian, Yelp, Chef
Java has been a golden name in the arena of programming languages since 1996. It has been a preferred choice of developers since then and has been a trustworthy pioneer in the arena of programming. Many new languages have been introduced over these years, but Java still holds a strong fort.
Its “Write Once Run Anywhere” feature is its USP. Java empowers the code to be built on one machine and execute on another. It is accompanied by automated memory allocation, garbage collection, security management, comprehensive API management, database connections, multithreading.
Since Java can create highly functional applications and programs, it has been a choice for many server-side applications. It is easily manageable with a great end security setup and a lot of stability. As compared to other languages, it is easy to learn. It has been playing a key role in developing software applications in almost all industry segments, worldwide.
- Simple and easily understandable syntax
- Enhances code reusability and flexibility
- Secure, economical, and platform-independent
- Automated memory collection
- Supports multithreading, distributed computing, stack allocation
- Limits for templates are not set
- Needs significant memory space
Organizations Leveraging Java:
Infosys, IBM, HCL, Uber, Airbnb, Instagram, Amazon, Google, Pinterest, Spotify, Netflix
- High speed and regular updates
- No compilation needed
- Skilled resources available with wide community support
- Caters to multiple types of applications, browsers, and infrastructure
- Includes animations, games, video players, menus, etc.
- Offers access to a single legacy
- Perception differs according to various browsers
PayPal, Microsoft, Uber, Facebook, Google, Groupon, eBay, Netflix, Walmart, LinkedIn
R Programming Language:
R programming language is most wanted when it comes to the data science arena. Supported by the R Foundation, it has been most used for creating statistical software and data analytical solutions. Libraries in R are apt to create detailed analysis with insightful designs and data visualization.
Since R is interoperable, it can handle many packages together and hence effectively deal with the databases. It is also utilized to create web applications. It can be used for distributed computing and does not need a compiler since it is an interpreted language.
R is used in machine learning solutions and innovative technologies. Users can prepare reports of their own choice and format, with R. It works well with Linux, Microsoft Windows, and GNU. Though it is a little tough to learn, it does offer appropriate techniques and coding styles for statistical analysis.
- Free, open-source, and includes statistical analysis language
- Holds a strong package ecosystem
- Competency to execute seamlessly on various platforms
- Increasing community support
- Ability to make tweaks as per requirements
- Memory management is not effective enough
- Security guidelines are not comprehensive
Organizations Leveraging R:
Amazon, Flipkart, LinkedIn, Firefox, ANZ, Google, Bing, Accenture, Wipro, IBM, Microsoft
An Apple make, Swift was introduced in 2014 as a unified platform that could manage a variety of applications. Based on the concepts of Objective C, Swift is a highly flexible language with greater speed of execution as compared to C, C++, and Objective C.
The syntax used here is like routine English and hence easy for developers to understand it and use it. Even typing errors can be reduced to a large extent because of its simplicity. Sharing of code is easy in Swift since it can be utilized both on the frontend and backend. It showcases automated error handling.
The main aim of Swift is to have programming easily done and make difficult things possible. It uses a revolutionary approach for safe, performance-driven software development. It has a strong influence of Python and Ruby. It is considered ideal for iOS app development and when there is a need to develop iOS apps, Mac apps, or native iOS apps.
Good Read: Top 20 Popular Apps Built Using Swift
- Fast, scalable, and powered by Apple with automated memory management
- Easy to add-on newer features and perfect for use in the modern server application
- Effectual and fast coding style, with essential support for in-line fixes
- Dynamic libraries to guarantee enhanced app performance and faster loading
- Lesser maintenance, improved readability
- Limited legacy system assistance
- Limited resources and community support
Organizations Leveraging Swift:
Apple, Coursera, Slack, LinkedIn, IBM, Artsy, Cognizant, Intuit, Pinterest, Datadog, Fitbit
Application development using TypeScript is faster owing to its salient features and increased toolbox. It is both a set of tools and a language. It can execute in any environment and has three components – language, compiler, and language service.
- Portable across browsers, devices, and OS
- Optional static, strict, and structural typing
- Supports object-oriented programming styles
- Interpreted language including interfaces, classes, generics, modules, etc.
- Complicated to understand
- Needs compilation
Organizations Leveraging TypeScript:
Microsoft, Slack, Accenture, medium.com, Vox Media, Graphy, Avanade, Asana, Lyft
C#, C++, and C are three varied programming languages that have a common base. The oldest one being C, it has still held its own charm and loyal community support. Based on this, came C++ and C# for different objectives. Today, all three have their own popularity quotient and are reigning high amongst the developer community.
These 3 languages have been mainly popular in the gaming sector owing to its salient features. As the gaming industry continues to grow, these languages are being used more and shall show more utilization in the coming year too. All 3 languages come under the top slot of programming languages.
Knowing C is of great help when it comes to mastering C++ and C#. It does help a lot and hence developers who know C are easily able to gain mastery over the other two. Huge technology giants have based their applications on these 3 programming languages, depending upon the available skills, requirements, and infrastructure.
- Enriched support of library and compiler functions
- Encompasses a huge variety of domains, infrastructure, and hardware
- Supports exception handling and function overloading
- Faster execution of programs and lines of code
- Supports object-oriented programming concepts
- Lacking run-time check and garbage collection
- Complicated syntax
Organizations Leveraging Them:
Google, Adobe Photoshop, Accenture, Microsoft, Zealous Systems, Alibaba Travels, GitHub, Twitch, Lime, NASA, Facebook, Opera, LinkedIn
PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) was originally created around 1994, as an open-source server-side scripting language meant for developing personal homepages. But, thanks to its features and efficiency, it has been one of the leading programming languages today. PHP today is known for building static and dynamic websites and web pages written in HTML.
It has a huge ecosystem and is easy to use, for developers. It has the competence to perform alterations even after initiating the project and this saves a great deal of time. The developer can save a lot of time and energy by not having to write the code time and again. It is compatible with most OS and databases and can be integrated seamlessly with other systems.
Scalable in nature, PHP can be leveraged to write multiple pages of a website. It has a highly secure framework owing to which developers prefer writing code, to protect their applications. Because of years of experience and expertise, PHP has now turned into a stable language offering the best of programming concepts, in an easy and robust manner.
- The huge bulk of effective frameworks
- Automated tools for implementing applications
- Great online support and community
- Adaptable, fast, and realistic
- Easy and simple to learn
- Error management not sufficiently effective
- Lesser security protocols
Organizations Leveraging PHP:
Wikipedia, Facebook, Yahoo, WordPress, Etsy, MailChimp, Tumblr, Slack, DailyMotion
As We Await 2021 To Leverage the Best Programming Languages
It has been an interesting watch to observe year after year, newer languages or newer updates in existing languages that have raised the expectation bar quite high. As they say, ‘necessity is the mother of invention’ – this holds true for programming languages as they keep upgrading and showing their proficient features owing to multiple factors.
All programming languages are good and well-deserved, it depends upon the requirements and infrastructure on which one to choose. There are many other factors like budget, skills, expertise, timeline, etc. that decides on the best programming language for the project.
As the era of top programming languages bloom, the developers shall enjoy a delightful coding experience and the world shall enjoy its fruits in the form of robust and competitive software solutions. It is time to rejoice in the IT revolution!