In the plethora of programming languages ruling the IT globe, there are two names that are set against each other and are facing severe comparison – Python and Java.
There is much that has been said and written, experienced and implemented for both. Both have been trying their best to catch the top slot amongst programming languages for the year 2019. Though Java reigns on the top owing to its seniority and popularity, Python has shown great advancement over this period and is in stiff competition.
Here is a first glance at what Statista says:
This is just a statistical reference, there is much more behind the doors of Python and Java. Let us go through the intricate details of both, to understand them better.
Both are good, both are efficient, both are popular – that means both are amongst the best.
The question that perplexes users is – “which is the better out of the best?”
“The joy of coding Python should be in seeing short, concise, readable classes that express a lot of action in a small amount of clear code — not in reams of trivial code that bores the reader to death.” – Guido van Rossum
- An interpreted, high level, general-purpose programming language
- A clear, effective and powerful high-level language with automated memory management
- Created by Guido van Rossum in 1991, as a successor to the ABC language
- Developed by Python Software Foundation (PSF) – a non-profit organization that holds the rights behind Python
- The latest release is 2.7.17 on 19th October 2019
“Java: write once, run away!” –Brucee
- A general-purpose programming language that is class-based and object-oriented
- Dynamically linked, permitting new code to be downloaded and run, but not dynamically typed
- Promises ‘Write Once, Run Anywhere’ (WORA) concept
- Designed by James Gosling, developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995
- Owned by Oracle corporation since 2009
- The latest release is Java SE 13 on 17th September 2019
Python vs Java: Similarities
Both these programming languages have many things in common, yet they both display sure shot differences too.
Here are some common features they both carry:
- They have robust cross-platform support
- They have wide standard libraries
- They both handle almost everything as objects
- Both compile to bytecodes and run in virtual machines
- Both are members of the Algol family
Python vs Java: A Detailed Comparison On The Basis Of Several Important Parameters
|Being an interpreted language, Python determines the type of data at runtime and hence is slower||Java is faster as it is compiled and takes lesser time for code execution|
|Python is very flexible and offers different methods to solve the same problem||Java has hard rules on building features and isn’t that flexible when it comes to error solving|
|Python has recently gained a large amount of popularity in developed countries||Java has always been popular but is facing stiff competition now|
|Python is faster as compared to Java hence a preferred one, but Java is more portable||Java, because of JVM, can run a Java program on any device while Python needs a compiler|
|Python translates the bytecode into machine code which is again stored in another folder, not translated at runtime. So, the bytecode is sent across Python Virtual Machine, where the actual code executes.||Java offers a run-time environment to manage the code. It offers a seamless experience to developers. It translates Java bytecode into ML which can be compiled at the time of execution.|
|Python is a scripting language and is dynamically typed||Java is a compiled language and is statically typed|
|Python has fewer lines of coding and hence is preferred||Java is quite wordy and needs more lines of coding|
|Python is preferred for AI, machine learning, IoT, etc.||Java is preferred for mobile and web app development|
|Python, being new and fresh, is keeping developers happy and enthusiastic||Java, being an old language, has its own set of developer loyalty existing since long|
|Python follows dynamic typing and allows usage of variables as needed without bothering about its type||Java follows static typing and forces definition of variable type in the start with no flexibility to change it later|
|Python uses indentation hence code is easy to read and more error-free||Java uses curly braces which isn’t as easy to read and gets more prone to errors|
|Python is easy to learn for beginners and has a shorter learning curve||Java is a developer’s delight but has a larger learning curve, in comparison|
|Whitespace is a part of Python’s syntax. The Python snippet is a few lines shorter than the Java snippet||Java overlooks Whitespace. The Java snippet proves better than Python snippet, especially in huge programs|
|Python compiles code at runtime||Java compiles it in advance and distributes the bytecode|
|Python is effective when it comes to adapting legacy systems and makes slow changes||Java tends to fully rewrite and revamp legacy systems that get cumbersome and takes more time|
|Python supports the ‘literate programming approach’ that prepares a single document containing code, graphs, pictures, etc.||Java uses a concise syntax method that uses code largely to create apps. The code is read by both other machines and developers.|
|Python has a linear and less dispersed coding format as compared to Java. E.g., there is no need to put a semicolon at the end of every station. Hence, it is more readable.||Java has a little complex and difficult way of coding as compared to Python. Its usage of curly braces is quite high. Java isn’t that readable as Python.|
|Python has 1,637 user groups in 191 cities and 37 countries with more than 860,000 representatives. It has events like PyCon and PyLadies for women to meet and code together||Java has Java User Groups (JUGs), which are some of the most widespread coding groups in the world. It has events like JavaOne that indicates no signs of slow down|
When To Choose Python?
Choose Python development when you are developing
- ML apps
- Web apps and frameworks
- Graphic design apps
- Computational apps
When To Choose Java?
Choose Java when you are developing
- Desktop apps
- Embedded applications
- Data processing apps
- Mobile and web apps
- Enterprise-level solutions
As The Comparison Gets Interesting In The Year 2020
The year 2019 has already witnessed stiff comparison and competition between the two programming language stalwarts – Python and Java. Python has been trending high for the coming year too and showcases a lot of potentials to beat Java in the numero uno race. Java is also competent enough to save its place and maintain its supremacy through its Java app development services.
Though not as trendy as it once was, Java still holds the number one position. But Python’s growth rate has been exponential especially in developed countries. There are authentic sources who believe that Python may overtake Java soon. The major reason being Python is being contributed heavily to cutting-edge technologies like AI, IoT, data science, ML, etc. Let’s see! It will be interesting to see who surpasses whom! Whoever it is, the developers are surely in for a treat!